Demo Case 1

 Amsterdam, Netherlands


Waternet, the water company of Amsterdam, serves 1.2 million people. Water is produced from surface water with two production plants: Leiduin (capacity 70 mln m3/year) and Weesperkarspel (capacity 31 mln m3/year). Although the finished drinking water complies with the PFAS standards of the new European Drinking Water Directive, the concentration of four specific per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) compounds, the so-called European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) PFAS compounds, exceed the provisional guide level of 4.4 ng/L for these compounds.

Key facts

  • Both oxidation by ozone and adsorption with conventional adsorbents are not effective in removing these EFSA PFAS.

  • Reverse osmosis is effective but is characterized by high energy demand and a residual product and thus is not a zero-pollution.

Expected impacts

  • Test an innovative adsorbent on a laboratory scale and evaluate on the criteria removal efficiency, environmental impact, costs, and applicability on small-scale aCO2 footprint.
  • Develop hard sensors to measure the effectivity of pesticide removal and effectivity of regeneration of exhausted adsorbent.

Partners involved

Tu Delft